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02 Jul 2013

Glasgow

Glasgow (English /ˈɡlɑːzɡoʊ/; Scots: Glesga; Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland and the third largest in the United Kingdom. It is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as Glaswegians English /ɡlɑːzˈwiːdʒənz/.

 

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Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become one of the largest seaports in the world. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, and the later establishment of the University of Glasgow in the 15th century, Levono Ideapad G560 Keyboard

 

Levono Ideapad Z575 Keyboard it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the 18th century. From the 18th century the city also grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies. Levono Ideapad Z570 Keyboard

 

With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded rapidly to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals, textiles and engineering; Levono Ideapad Z560 Keyboard

most notably in the shipbuilding and marine engineering industry, which produced many innovative and famous vessels. Glasgow is known as the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period.[4][ Levono Ideapad Y560P Keyboard

5][6][7] Today it is one of Europe's top ten financial centres[8][9] and is home to many of Scotland's leading businesses.[10] Glasgow is also ranked as the 57th most liveable city in the world.[11]

 

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In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow grew in population, eventually reaching a peak of 1,128,473 in 1939,.[12] In the 1960s, comprehensive urban renewal projects resulting in large-scale relocation of people to new towns and peripheral suburbs, followed by successive boundary changes, have reduced the current population of the City of Glasgow council area to 592,000,[3] with 1,199,629[1Levono Ideapad Y560 Keyboard

3] people living in the Greater Glasgow urban area. The entire region surrounding the conurbation covers approximately 2.3 million people, 41% of Scotland's population.[14] Glasgow will host the 2014 Commonwealth Games and is currently a candidate city to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.[15] Levono Ideapad V570A Keyboard

 

The present site of Glasgow has been used since prehistoric times for settlement due to it being the furthest downstream fording point of the River Clyde, at the point of its confluence with the Molendinar Burn. Levono Ideapad V570 Keyboard

After the Romans left Caledonia the settlement was part of the extensive Kingdom of Strathclyde, with its capital at Dumbarton 15 mi (24 km) downstream, which merged in the 9th century with other regions to create the united Kingdom of Scotland.[1Levono Ideapad V570C Keyboard

6] The origins of Glasgow as an established city derive ultimately from its medieval position as Scotland's second largest bishopric. Glasgow increased in importance during the 10th and 11th centuries as the site of this bishopric, reorganised by King David I of Scotland and John, Bishop of Glasgow.

 

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There had been an earlier religious site established by Saint Mungo in the 6th century. The bishopric became one of the largest and wealthiest in the Kingdom of Scotland, bringing wealth and status to the town. Levono Ideapad B570 Keyboard

Between 1175 and 1178 this position was strengthened even further when Bishop Jocelin obtained for the episcopal settlement the status of Burgh from King William I of Scotland,

 

Levono Ideapad V570A Keyboardallowing the settlement to expand with the benefits of trading monopolies and other legal guarantees. Sometime between 1189 and 1195 this status was supplemented by an annual fair, which survives to this day as the Glasgow Fair. Levono Ideapad B575 Keyboard

 

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Glasgow grew over the following centuries, the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross.

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Levono Ideapad B570G KeyboardThe founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 served to increase the town's religious and educational status, and landed wealth. HP Pavilion dm4-3002ea keyboard

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HP Pavilion dm4-3000 keyboard Its early trade was in agriculture, brewing and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean.[16] HP Pavilion dm4-3000sa keyboard

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Following the Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs the 14 Incorporated Trade Crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the Town Council of the earlier Merchants Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year.[16HP compaq 6820s Keyboard

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] Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade, manufacturing and invention starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, and then cotton and linen. HP compaq 6730p Keyboard

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Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, and best built city in Britain, HP Compaq business 6715B Keyboard

 

HP Probook 5330M Keyboard London excepted." At that time, the city's population numbered approximately 12,000, and was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to the city's economy and urban fabric, brought about by the influences of the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. HP Compaq business 6515B Keyboard

 

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Trading port[edit]

After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, and Glasgow became prominent as a hub of international trade to and from the Americas, especially in sugar, tobacco, cotton, and manufactured goods. The city's Tobacco Lords created a deep water port at Port Glasgow on the Firth of Clyde, as the river within the city itself was then too shallow.[17HP Compaq business 6510B Keyboard

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HP Probook 5310M Keyboard] By the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on Glasgow's River Clyde, with over 47,000,000 lb (21,000 t) of tobacco being imported each year at its peak.[18] HP mini 2133 Series Keyboard

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Industrialisation[edit]

 

 

Shipping on the Clyde, Atkinson Grimshaw, 1881.

The opening of the Monkland Canal and basin linking to the Forth and Clyde Canal at Port Dundas in 1795, facilitated access to the extensive iron-ore and coal mines in Lanarkshire. After extensive river engineering projects to dredge and deepen the River Clyde as far as Glasgow, shipbuilding became a major industry on the upper stretches of the river, pioneered by industrialists such as Robert Napier, John Elder, George Thomson, Sir William Pearce and Sir Alfred Yarrow.

The River Clyde also became an important source of inspiration for artists, such as John Atkinson Grimshaw, John Knox, James Kay, Sir Muirhead Bone, Robert Eadie, Stanley Spencer and L.S. Lowry, willing to depict the new industrial era and the modern world.

Glasgow's population had surpassed that of Edinburgh by 1821. The development of civic institutions included the City of Glasgow Police in 1800, one of the first municipal police forces in the world. Despite the crisis caused by the City of Glasgow Bank's collapse in 1878, growth continued and by the end of the 19th century it was one of the cities known as the "Second City of the Empire" and was producing more than half Britain's tonnage of shipping[19] and a quarter of all locomotives in the world.[20] In addition to its pre-eminence in shipbuilding, engineering, industrial machinery, bridge building, chemicals, explosives, coal and oil industries it developed as a major centre in textiles, garment-making, carpet manufacturing, leather processing, furniture-making, pottery, food, drink and cigarette making; printing and publishing. Shipping, banking, insurance and professional services expanded at the same time.[21]

Glasgow became one of the first cities in Europe to reach a population of one million. The city's new trades and sciences attracted new residents from across the Lowlands and the Highlands of Scotland, from other parts of Britain and Ireland and from Continental Europe.[16] HP Compaq Business 6530S Keyboard

 

 

During this period, the construction of many of the city's greatest architectural masterpieces and most ambitious civil engineering projects, such as the Loch Katrine aqueduct, Subway, Tramway system, City Chambers,

 

HP Probook 4725S KeyboardMitchell Library and Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum were being funded by its wealth. The city also held a series of International Exhibitions at Kelvingrove Park, in 1888, 1901 and 1911, HP Compaq Business 6730S Keyboard

 

HP Probook 4720S Keyboardwith Britain's last major International Exhibition, the Empire Exhibition, being subsequently held in 1938 at Bellahouston Park, which drew 13 million visitors.[22]

 

 

Glasgow George Square in 1966.

The 20th century witnessed both decline and renewal in the city. After World War I, the city suffered from the impact of the Post–World War I recession and from the later Great Depression, this also led to a rise of radical socialism and the "Red Clydeside" movement. HP Compaq Business 6535S Keyboard

The city had recovered by the outbreak of World War II and grew through the post-war boom that lasted through the 1950s. HP Probook 4320S Keyboard

 

HP Probook 4535S Keyboard By the 1960s, Britain's lack of investment and innovation led to growing overseas competition from countries like Japan and West Germany which weakened the once pre-eminent position of many of the city's industries. HP Compaq Business 6735S Keyboard

 

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As a result of this, Glasgow entered a lengthy period of relative economic decline and rapid de-industrialisation, leading to high unemployment, urban decay, population decline, welfare dependency and poor health for the city's inhabitants. HP Probook 4321S Keyboard

There were active attempts at regeneration of the city, when the Glasgow Corporation published its controversial Bruce Report, which set out a comprehensive series of initiatives aimed at turning round the decline of the city. HP Probook 4325S Keyboard

The report led to a huge and radical programme of rebuilding and regeneration efforts which started in the mid-1950s and lasted into the late 1970s, which saw the mass demolition of the city's infamous slums and their replacement with large suburban housing estates and tower blocks.[23]

 

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The city invested heavily in its roads infrastructure, with an extensive system of arterial roads and motorways which biscected the central area. HP Probook 4329S Keyboard

 

HP Probook 4510S Keyboard There are also accusations that the Scottish Office had deliberately attempted to undermine Glasgow's economic and political influence in post-war Scotland by diverting inward investment in new industries to other regions during the Silicon Glen boom and creating the new towns of Cumbernauld, Glenrothes, HP Probook 4326S Keyboard

 

HP Probook 4525S KeyboardIrvine, Livingston and East Kilbride, dispersed across the Scottish Lowlands, in order to halve the city's population base.[23]

By the late 1980s, there had been a significant resurgence in Glasgow's economic fortunes. The "Glasgow's miles better" campaign, launched in 1983, HP Probook 4410 Keyboard

 

HP Probook 4416S Keyboard and opening of the Burrell Collection in 1983 and Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre in 1985 facilitated Glasgow's new role as a European centre for business services and finance and promoted an increase in tourism and inward investment.[24HP Probook 4410S Keyboard

 

HP Probook 4414S Keyboard] The latter continues to be bolstered by the legacy of the city's Glasgow Garden Festival in 1988, its status as European City of Culture in 1990, and concerted attempts to diversify the city's economy.[25] Wider economic revival has persisted and the ongoing regeneration of inner-city areas, HP Probook 4410T Keyboard

including the large-scale Clyde Waterfront Regeneration, has led to more affluent people moving back to live in the centre of Glasgow, fuelling allegations of gentrification.[26] The city is now considered by Lonely Planet to be one of the world's top 10 tourist cities.[27] HP Probook 4411S Keyboard

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Despite Glasgow's economic renaissance, the East End of the city remains the focus of social deprivation.[28] A Glasgow Economic Audit report published in 2007 stated that the gap between prosperous and deprived areas of the city is widening.[29] Sony PCG-41111M Keyboard


Sony PCG-51211M Keyboard In 2006, 47% of Glasgow's population lived in the most deprived 15% of areas in Scotland,[29] while the Centre for Social Justice reported 29.4% of the city's working-age residents to be "economically inactive".[28] Sony PCG-41112M Keyboard


Sony PCG-51112M KeyboardAlthough marginally behind the UK average, Glasgow still has a higher employment rate than Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester.[29]

In 2008 the city was ranked at 43 for Personal Safety in the Mercer index of top 50 safest cities in the world.[30] The Mercer report was specifically looking at Quality of Living, Sony PCG-81111M Keyboard
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yet by 2011 within Glasgow, certain areas were (still) "failing to meet the Scottish Air Quality Objective levels for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10)."[31]

Toponymy[edit]

It is common to derive the name Glasgow from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green hollow. The settlement probably had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures; the modern name appears for the first time in the Gaelic period (1116),


Sony PCG-51111M Keyboard as Glasgu. It is also recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern (also known as Saint Mungo), and procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn, and making many converts. Sony PCG-81212M Keyboard

 

Sony PCG-51212M KeyboardA large community developed around him and became known as Glasgu (often glossed as "the dear Green" or "dear green place").

Heraldry[edit]

The coat of arms of the City of Glasgow

 

Details

Adopted         1866

Crest               Saint Mungo

Supporters     Two salmon, bearing rings

Motto             Let Glasgow Flourish by the preaching of Your word, and the praising of Your name.

The coat of arms of the City of Glasgow was granted to the royal burgh by the Lord Lyon on 25 October 1866.[32

 

Sony PCG-51512M Keyboard] It incorporates a number of symbols and emblems associated with the life of Glasgow's patron saint, Mungo, which had been used on official seals prior to that date. The emblems represent miracles supposed to have been performed by Mungo and are listed in the traditional rhyme:

 

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Here's the bird that never flew

Here's the tree that never grew

Here's the bell that never rang

Here's the fish that never swam

St Mungo is also said to have preached a sermon containing the words Lord, Let Glasgow flourish by the preaching of the word and the praising of thy name. This was abbreviated to "Let Glasgow Flourish" and adopted as the city's motto. Sony PCG-81113M Keyboard

 

In 1450, John Stewart, the first Lord Provost of Glasgow, left an endowment so that a "St Mungo's Bell" could be made and tolled throughout the city so that the citizens would pray for his soul. A new bell was purchased by the magistrates in 1641 and that bell is still on display in the People's Palace Museum, near Glasgow Green. Sony PCG-81313M Keyboard

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The supporters are two salmon bearing rings, and the crest is a half length figure of Saint Mungo. He wears a bishop's mitre and liturgical vestments and has his hand raised in "the act of benediction". The original 1866 grant placed the crest atop a helm, but this was removed in subsequent grants. The current version (1996) Sony PCG-5S1M Keyboard

Sony PCG-7186M Keyboard has a gold mural crown between the shield and the crest. This form of coronet, resembling an embattled city wall, was allowed to the four area councils with city status.

The arms were re-matriculated by the City of Glasgow District Council on 6 February 1975,
Sony PCG-7181M Keyboard and by the present area council on 25 March 1996. The only change made on each occasion was in the type of coronet over the arms.[33][34]

Government[edit]

 

See also: Politics of Glasgow

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Glasgow City Chambers, located on George Square, is the headquarters of Glasgow City Council and the seat of Local Government in the city.

Although the Glasgow Corporation had been a pioneer in the municipal socialist movement from the late 19th century, since the Representation of the People Act 1918, Glasgow increasingly supported Left-wing ideas and politics at a national level. Sony PCG-5P1M Keyboard

Sony PCG-7161M Keyboard The city council has been controlled by the Labour Party for over 30 years, since the decline of the Progressives. As in other post-industrial cities in the United Kingdom, there is a high correlation between voting for parties representing the political left and the decline of the heavy industries that formerly employed thousands of workers. Sony PCG-5N2M Keyboard

Sony PCG-7151M Keyboard There is also a correlation with the voting pattern and the relative poverty and deprivation in several Glasgow constituencies and wards.

In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and German Revolution of 1918–1919, the city's frequent strikes and militant organisations caused serious alarm at Westminster, with one uprising in January 1919 prompting the Prime Minister, Sony PCG-3C2M Keyboard

Sony PCG-7143M KeyboardDavid Lloyd George to deploy 10,000 troops and tanks onto the city's streets. A huge demonstration in the city's George Square on 31 January ended in violence after the Riot Act was read.
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Since 2007 when local government elections in Scotland began to use the single transferable vote rather than first-past-the-post system, the dominance of the Labour party within the city has declined (though it remains one of only two local authorities - along with North Lanarkshire, where Labour maintains an outright majority over the other parties) Sony PCG-7195M Keyboard

Industrial action at the shipyards gave rise to the "Red Clydeside" epithet. During the 1930s, Glasgow was the main base of the Independent Labour Party. Towards the end of the 20th century it became a centre of the struggle against the poll tax, and then the main base of the Scottish Socialist Party, a left-wing party in Scotland. The city has not had a Conservative MP since the 1982 Hillhead by-election, Sony PCG-7196M Keyboard

Sony PCG-7154M Keyboard when the SDP took the seat, which was in Glasgow's wealthiest area. The resultant general political bias against the Conservative party continued and currently they have only 1 of the 79 councillors on Glasgow City Council, despite having been the controlling party (as the Progressives) Sony PCG-7192M Keyboard

Sony PCG-7153M Keyboard from 1969-1972 when Sir Donald Liddle was the last non-Labour Lord Provost.

Scottish Parliament region[edit]

See also: Glasgow Scottish Parliament region

The Glasgow electoral region of the Scottish Parliament covers the Glasgow City council area, the Rutherglen area of the South Lanarkshire and a small eastern portion of Renfrewshire. It elects nine of the parliament's 73 first past the post constituency members and seven of the 56 additional members. Sony PCG-7194M Keyboard

Sony PCG-7151M Keyboard Both kinds of member are known as Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs). The system of election is designed to produce a form of proportional representation.

The first past the post seats were created in 1999 with the names and boundaries of then existing Westminster (House of Commons) constituencies. In 2005, Sony PCG-7144M Keyboard
Sony PCG-7141M Keyboard the number of Westminster Members of Parliament (MPs) representing Scotland was cut to 59, with new constituencies being formed, while the existing number of MSPs was retained at Holyrood. In the 2011 Scottish Parliament election, the boundaries of the Glasgow region were redrawn. Sony PCG-3F1M Keyboard


Glasgow is located on the banks of the River Clyde, in West Central Scotland. Its second most important river is the Kelvin whose name was used for creating the title of Baron Kelvin and thereby ended up as the scientific unit of temperature. Sony PCG-3H1M Keyboard

Sony PCG-3G2M Keyboard On older maps Glasgow will be found within the area of the pre-1975 county of Lanarkshire, from 1975 to 1996 it will appear within Strathclyde Region; current maps will generally show Glasgow as one of 32 Council Areas in Scotland. Sony PCG-3J1M Keyboard
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In spite of its northerly latitude, close to the same line as Moscow and Copenhagen, Glasgow's climate is classified as oceanic (Köppen Cfb). Data is available online for 3 official weather stations in the Glasgow area: Paisley, Abbotsinch and Bishopton.

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