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02 Aug 2015

London and United Kingdom –sony motherboard

London Listeni/ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.[3][4] Standing on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its founding by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[ sony SVP132A16M battery
sony VGP-BPS38 battery5] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries and in 2011 had a resident population of 7,375, making it the smallest city in England. Since at least the 19th century, the term London has also referred to the metropolis developed around this core.[6Sony SVE151D11M battery
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Sony SVS151A12M battery] The bulk of this conurbation forms Greater London,[7][8][note 1] a region of England governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.[9][note 2] The conurbation also covers two English counties: the City of London and the county of Greater London.[10]

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London is a leading global city,[11][12] with strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transport all contributing to its prominence.[13][14][15][16] It is one of the world's leading financial centres[17][18Sony SVE171E13M battery
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][19] and has the fifth-or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world depending on measurement.[note 3][20][21] London is a world cultural capital.[22][23][24][25] It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals[26] and has the world's largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic.[2
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sony SVS131E1EM battery7] London's 43 universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe.[28] In 2012, London became the first city to host the modern Summer Olympic Games three times.[29]

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London has a diverse range of peoples and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken within Greater London.[30] The Greater London Authority estimated its population to be 8.63 million in 2015,[2] the largest of any municipality in the European Union,[31] and accounting for 12.5 percent of the UK population.[3Sony SVE171C11M battery
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sony SVS131C24M battery2] London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants according to the 2011 census.[33] The city's metropolitan area is one of the most populous in Europe with 13,879Sony SVE151E11M battery

sony SVS131C1EM battery,757 inhabitants,[note 4][34] while the Greater London Authority states the population of the city-region (covering a large part of south east England) as 22.7 million.[35] London was the world's most populous city from around 1831 to 1925.[36]


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London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement of Greenwich (in which the Royal Observatory, Greenwich marks the Prime Meridian, 0° longitude, and GMT).[3Sony SVE171A11M battery
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sony SVS131A12M battery7] Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. London is home to numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events and other cultural institutions, including the British Museum, Sony SVS13AA11M battery

sony SVS131A11M batteryNational Gallery, Tate Modern, British Library and 40 West End theatres.[38] The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world.[39][40]

 

The etymology of London is uncertain.[41] It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century. It is recorded c. 121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin.[41] The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae.[4Sony SVS131B12M battery
Sony SVS151A11M battery1] This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.[42]

 

From 1898, it was commonly accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos; this explanation has since been rejected.[4Sony PCG-4121DM battery


Sony PCG-41315M battery1] Richard Coates put forward an explanation in 1998 that it is derived from the pre-Celtic Old European *(p)lowonida, meaning 'river too wide to ford', and suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, Sony PCG-4121EM battery


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Sony PCG-41314M battery *Lowonidonjon;[43] this requires quite a serious amendment however. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *(h)lōndinion (as opposed to *londīnion), from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Sony PCG-41211M battery
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Until 1889, the name "London" officially applied only to the City of London, but since then it has also referred to the County of London and now Greater London.[6]

 

PrehistorySony PCG-41218M battery

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Two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area. In 1999, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the foreshore north of Vauxhall Bridge.[44] This bridge either crossed the Thames, or went to a now lost island in the river. Dendrology dated the timbers to 1500 BC.[4Sony PCG-41414M battery
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Sony PCG-31114M battery4] In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to 4500 BC, were found on the Thames foreshore, south of Vauxhall Bridge.[45] The function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on South Bank, at a natural crossing point where the River Effra flows into the River Thames.[45] Sony PCG-4121GM battery

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Roman London

 

In 1300, the City was still confined within the Roman walls.

Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans after the invasion of 43 AD.[46] This lasted only until around 61, when the Iceni tribe led by Queen Boudica stormed it, Sony PCG-41212M battery

Sony PCG-31112M battery burning it to the ground.[47] The next, heavily planned, incarnation of Londinium prospered, and it superseded Colchester as the capital of the Roman province of Britannia in 100. At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of around 60,000. Sony PCG-41215M battery

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Anglo-Saxon London (and Viking period)

With the collapse of Roman rule in the early 5th century, London ceased to be a capital and the walled city of Londinium was effectively abandoned, although Roman civilisation continued in the St Martin-in-the-Fields area until around 450.[4Sony PCG-41216M battery
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Sony PCG-41218M battery8] From around 500, an Anglo-Saxon settlement known as Lundenwic developed in the same area, slightly to the west of the old Roman city.[49] By about 680, it had revived sufficiently to become a major port, although there is little evidence of large-scale production of goods. sony SVF14AA1QM battery
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Sony SVE14AG15M batteryFrom the 820s the town declined because of repeated Viking invasions. There are three recorded Viking assaults on London; two of which were successful in 851 and 886 AD, although they were defeated during the attack of 994 AD.[50] sony SVF153A1YM battery
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The Lancastrian siege of London in 1471 is attacked by a Yorkist sally.

The Vikings established Danelaw over much of the eastern and northern part of England with its boundary roughly stretching from London to Chester. It was an area of political and geographical control imposed by the Viking incursions which was formally agreed to by the Danish warlord, Guthrum and west-Saxon king, Alfred the Great in 886 AD. sony SVF154B1EM battery
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sony SVF14NA1EM battery Danelaw lasted in many parts of England for centuries to come. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that London was "refounded" by Alfred the Great in 886. Archaeological research shows that this involved abandonment of Lundenwic and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls. London then grew slowly until about 950, after which activity increased dramatically.[51sony SVT151A11M battery
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By the 11th century, London was beyond all comparison the largest town in England. Westminster Abbey, rebuilt in the Romanesque style by King Edward the Confessor, was one of the grandest churches in Europe. sony SVF152A29M battery
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sony SVF15NA1YM battery Winchester had previously been the capital of Anglo-Saxon England, but from this time on, London became the main forum for foreign traders and the base for defence in time of war. In the view of Frank Stenton: "It had the resources, and it was rapidly developing the dignity and the political self-consciousness appropriate to a national capital."[52][53] sony VGP-BPS38 battery
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Middle Ages

 

Westminster Abbey, as seen in this painting (Canaletto, 1749), is a World Heritage Site and one of London's oldest and most important buildings

Following his victory in the Battle of Hastings, William, Duke of Normandy, was crowned King of England in the newly finished Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066.[54] William constructed the Tower of London, sony VGP-BPS40 battery
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sony SVF15NB1YM battery the first of the many Norman castles in England to be rebuilt in stone, in the southeastern corner of the city, to intimidate the native inhabitants.[55] In 1097, William II began the building of Westminster Hall, close by the abbey of the same name. The hall became the basis of a new Palace of Westminster.[56][57]


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During the 12th century, the institutions of central government, which had hitherto accompanied the royal English court as it moved around the country, grew in size and sophistication and became increasingly fixed in one place. In most cases this was Westminster, although the royal treasury, having been moved from Winchester, Sony SVE151D11M battery
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sony SVS131A12M battery came to rest in the Tower. While the City of Westminster developed into a true capital in governmental terms, its distinct neighbour, the City of London, remained England's largest city and principal commercial centre, and it flourished under its own unique administration, the Corporation of London. In 1100, its population was around 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000.[58] Sony SVE171A11M battery
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Disaster struck during the Black Death in the mid-14th century, when London lost nearly a third of its population.[59] London was the focus of the Peasants' Revolt in 1381.[60]

 

Early modern

 

The Great Fire of London destroyed many parts of the city in 1666.

 

Map of London in 1593. There is only one bridge across the Thames, but parts of Southwark on the south bank of the river have been developed. Sony SVE151C11M battery
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During the Tudor period the Reformation produced a gradual shift to Protestantism, much of London passing from church to private ownership.[61] The traffic in woollen cloths shipped undyed and undressed from London to the nearby shores of the Low Countries, where it was considered indispensable. Sony SVE151G13M battery
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Sony SVS151A11M battery [62] But the tentacles of English maritime enterprise hardly extended beyond the seas of north-west Europe. The commercial route to Italy and the Mediterranean Sea normally lay through Antwerp and over the Alps; any ships passing through the Strait of Gibraltar to or from England were likely to be Italian or Ragusan. Upon the re-opening of the Netherlands to English shipping in January 1565Sony SVE171B11M battery

Sony SVS131B12M battery, there ensued a strong outburst of commercial activity.[63] The Royal Exchange was founded.[64] Mercantilism grew, and monopoly trading companies such as the East India Company were established, with trade expanding to the New World. London became the principal North Sea port, with migrants arriving from England and abroad. The population rose from an estimated 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605.[ Sony SVE171C11M battery
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61]

 

In the 16th century William Shakespeare and his contemporaries lived in London at a time of hostility to the development of the theatre. By the end of the Tudor period in 1603, London was still very compact. Sony SVE151E11M battery

Sony SVS13AA11M batteryThere was an assassination attempt on James I in Westminster, through the Gunpowder Plot on 5 November 1605.[65] London was plagued by disease in the early 17th century,[66] culminating in the Great Plague of 1665–1666, which killed up to 100,000 people, or a fifth of the population.[67] Sony SVE171A11M battery
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The Great Fire of London broke out in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the city and quickly swept through the wooden buildings.[68] Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by Robert Hooke[69][70][71] as Surveyor of London.[72sony SVS131C1EM battery
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] In 1708 Christopher Wren's masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral was completed. During the Georgian era, new districts such as Mayfair were formed in the west; new bridges over the Thames encouraged development in South London. In the east, the Port of London expanded downstream. sony SVS151A12M battery
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In 1762, George III acquired Buckingham House and it was enlarged over the next 75 years. During the 18th century, London was dogged by crime, and the Bow Street Runners were established in 1750 as a professional police force.[73] In total, more than 200 offences were punishable by death,[74] including petty theft.[7sony SVS131E1DM battery
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Sony PCG-41313M battery5] Most children born in the city died before reaching their third birthday.[76] The coffeehouse became a popular place to debate ideas, with growing literacy and the development of the printing press making news widely available; and Fleet Street became the centre of the British press.

 

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Sony PCG-41311M batteryA bombed-out London street during the Blitz of the Second World War

London was the world's largest city from about 1831 to 1925.[78] London's overcrowded conditions led to cholera epidemics,[ Sony PCG-4121EM battery
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Sony PCG-31114M battery79] claiming 14,000 lives in 1848, and 6,000 in 1866.[80] Rising traffic congestion led to the creation of the world's first local urban rail network. The Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion in the capital and some of the surrounding counties; it was abolished in 1889 when the London County Council was created out of those Sony PCG-41213M battery

Sony PCG-31113M batteryareas of the counties surrounding the capital. London was bombed by the Germans during the First World War while during the Second World War, the Blitz and other bombings by the German Luftwaffe, killed over 30,000 Londoners and destroyed large tracts of housing and other buildings across the city. Sony PCG-41218M battery
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Sony PCG-31112M battery Immediately after the war, the 1948 Summer Olympics were held at the original Wembley Stadium, at a time when London had barely recovered from the war.

 

In 1951, the Festival of Britain was held on the South Bank. The Great Smog of 1952 led to the Clean Air Act 1956, which ended the "pea soup fogs" for which London had been notorious. From the 1940s onwards, London became home to a large number of immigrants, Sony PCG-41214M battery

Sony PCG-31111M battery largely from Commonwealth countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, making London one of the most diverse cities in Europe.

 

 

A view from Victoria Tower, in late 1920s.



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